• atonic digestive complaints
- pancreatic insufficiency
• irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
• Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
- Crohn's disease - supported by research
• biliary insufficiency
- cholelithiasis (gallstones)
- biliary dyskinesia
Note: other herbs are safer for long-term use.
• helminths (worms)
• upper respiratory tract infections
• irregular menstrual cycles
• IgA nephropathy
• Sesquiterpene lactones (e.g. absinthin)
• Essential oils
• Monoterpenes (thujone)
• Liquid extract (1:1 in 25% EtOH): 1-4 ml tid
• Infusion (Dried herb): 1-2 tsp tid
Contraindications: Pregnancy and lactation (uterine stimulant); thujone is teratogenic.
High doses: May lead to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, paralysis and convulsions; thujone is a neurotoxin.
Long-term use: Avoid use.
Gastritis, peptic ulcers: Stimulation of gastric secretions can irritate inflamed mucous membranes; concomitant ingestion of demulcent herbs can help prevent aggravation.
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Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
Bone K. A Clinical Guide to Blending Liquid Herbs: Herbal Formulations for the Individual Patient. St Louis, MO: Churchill Livingstone, 2003.
Brinker F. The Toxicology of Botanical Medicines, 3rd ed. Sandy, Oregon: Eclectic Medical Publications, 2000.
Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory. 1898. http://www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/kings/main.html. Accessed: August 19, 2006.
Hoffman D. Medical Herbalism. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 2003.
Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield, England: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1988.
Williamson EM, ed. Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2002
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