• digestive complaints with bloating and gas causing cramps:
- irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
• inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
- ulcerative colitis
- Crohn's disease
• nausea and vomiting
- motion sickness
• gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)†
• biliary tract dysfunction
• biliary colic
• conditions with phlegm & bronchospasm
Note: analgesic effects relieve sore-throats and suppress the cough reflex.
Musculoskeletal (oils topical)
• tension headaches
• essential oils act as topical analgesic for:
- insect bites
Volatile oils (menthol)
• Steam inhalation
• Infusion: 1-2 tsp/cup, as desired
• Tincture (1:5, 40%): 1-2 ml, tid
• Capsules: 0.2-0.6 ml/d essential oil in enteric-coated capsules
Generally considered safe when used as indicated.
†Caution: Whole leaf preparations may benefit GERD but the essential oil in large amounts may relax lower esophageal sphincter tone and contribute to GERD.
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Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
Bone K. A Clinical Guide to Blending Liquid Herbs: Herbal Formulations for the Individual Patient. St Louis, MO: Churchill Livingstone, 2003.
Brinker F. The Toxicology of Botanical Medicines, 3rd ed. Sandy, Oregon: Eclectic Medical Publications, 2000.
Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory. 1898. http://www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/kings/main.html. Accessed: August 19, 2006.
Hoffman D. Medical Herbalism. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 2003.
Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield, England: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1988.
Williamson EM, ed. Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2002
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