• various liver complaints
- viral hepatitis (HBV, HCV)
- drug-induced hepatitis
- non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
• poor appetite
- poor digestion
• peptic ulcers
• ulcerative colitis
• agalactia (poor lactation)
• chemotherapy - decreases hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity
• acne rosacea
• mercury poisoning
• obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
• Flavolignans (e.g. silymarin)
• Phenoilc acids
• Sterols (e.g. beta-sitosterol)
• Tincture (1:5 in 60% EtOH): 2-5 ml tid
• Liquid extract (1:1 in 25% EtOH): 2-6 ml tid
• Decoction (seeds): 1 tsp tid
• Standardized extract (70% silymarin): 600 mg/d
Note: Leaf preparations are devoid of flavolignans, which are found in the seeds.
Generally considered safe when used as indicated.
Barnes J, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines, 3rd ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2007.
Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
Bone K. A Clinical Guide to Blending Liquid Herbs: Herbal Formulations for the Individual Patient. St Louis, MO: Churchill Livingstone, 2003.
Brinker F. The Toxicology of Botanical Medicines, 3rd ed. Sandy, Oregon: Eclectic Medical Publications, 2000.
Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory. 1898. http://www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/kings/main.html. Accessed: August 19, 2006.
Hoffman D. Medical Herbalism. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 2003.
Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield, England: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1988.
Williamson EM, ed. Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2002
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