• engorged and inflamed veins
- varicose veins
• anal fisures
• venous insufficiency
• trauma and skin lesions
- leg ulcers
• post-surgical swelling (topical application)
• acne rosacea
• varicocele associated male infertility
• Bell's palsy
• male infertility
• Coumarins (aesculetin)
• Triterpenoid glycosides (aescin)
• Purine derivatives (allantoin)
• Tincture (1:5 in 40% EtOH): 1-4 ml tid
• Standardized extract (0-150 mg triterpenoids): qd
Generally considered safe when used as indicated.
• Coumadin - contains courmarins that may interact
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Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
Bone K. A Clinical Guide to Blending Liquid Herbs: Herbal Formulations for the Individual Patient. St Louis, MO: Churchill Livingstone, 2003.
Brinker F. The Toxicology of Botanical Medicines, 3rd ed. Sandy, Oregon: Eclectic Medical Publications, 2000.
Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory. 1898. http://www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/kings/main.html. Accessed: August 19, 2006.
Hoffman D. Medical Herbalism. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 2003.
Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield, England: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1988.
Williamson EM, ed. Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2002
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