• productive coughs (orally or steam inhalation)
• joint pain (topical application)
- rheumatoid arthritis
• myalgia (topical application)
• fungal infections
• ectoparasitic insects
• suppurative skin infections
• Volatile oils
• Flavonoids (leaf)
• Tannins (leaf)
• Tincture (1:5 in 40% EtOH): 1-2 ml tid
• Essential oil: 2-10 gtt qd (max 60 gtt)
Contraindications: GI tract inflammation, liver disease, topical application to the face (especially children).
Toxicity: Less than a teaspoon of the essential oil can be fatal in children.
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Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
Bone K. A Clinical Guide to Blending Liquid Herbs: Herbal Formulations for the Individual Patient. St Louis, MO: Churchill Livingstone, 2003.
Brinker F. The Toxicology of Botanical Medicines, 3rd ed. Sandy, Oregon: Eclectic Medical Publications, 2000.
Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory. 1898. http://www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/kings/main.html. Accessed: August 19, 2006.
Hoffman D. Medical Herbalism. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 2003.
Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield, England: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1988.
Williamson EM, ed. Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2002
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