• over-relaxed or inflamed mucous membranes with bleeding:
- infectious diarrhea (dysentery)
- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
- apthous ulcers
- gastric ulcers
- prolapsed rectum (enema or suppository)
- rectal bleeding
- proctitis (topical application)
- hemorrhoids (topical application)
- peptic ulcer
• excessive menstrual bleeding and/or discharge:
- leukorrhea (vaginal discharge)
• Tincture: (1:5 in 40% EtOH): 2-4 ml tid
• Liquid extract: (1:1 in 70% EtOH): 0.5-1 ml tid
• Decoction: (dried rhizome): 1-2 tsp of root tid
Generally considered safe when used as indicated.
Barnes J, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines, 3rd ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2007.
Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
Bone K. A Clinical Guide to Blending Liquid Herbs: Herbal Formulations for the Individual Patient. St Louis, MO: Churchill Livingstone, 2003.
Brinker F. The Toxicology of Botanical Medicines, 3rd ed. Sandy, Oregon: Eclectic Medical Publications, 2000.
Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory. 1898. http://www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/kings/main.html. Accessed: August 19, 2006.
Hoffman D. Medical Herbalism. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 2003.
Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield, England: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1988.
Williamson EM, ed. Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2002
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