• plantar fasciitis
Note: when used with extracorporeal shockwave application shown to be more effect than ultrasound gels to decrease pain
• constipation (internally)
• liver detoxification (topically)
• agalactia (topically)
• induces labour
• galactogogue (unclear)
• fixed oil (ricinoleic acid) - obtained from seeds
• ricin (toxic water soluble protein)
• Apply oil liberally to affected part
• 1-4 tsp willcause cramping and bowel movements within 4-6 hrs
• Seeds - the water soluble extract from the seeds contains ricin and is highly toxic resulting in death from 4-8 seeds. Only the oil is safe.
• Orally - the oil acts on both the small and large intestine producing colic and more rapid expulsion of the bowels. Long-term use as been shown to cause leaky gut syndrome in animals. Not recommend as first choice as a laxative.
Barnes J, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines, 3rd ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2007.
Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
Bone K. A Clinical Guide to Blending Liquid Herbs: Herbal Formulations for the Individual Patient. St Louis, MO: Churchill Livingstone, 2003.
Brinker F. The Toxicology of Botanical Medicines, 3rd ed. Sandy, Oregon: Eclectic Medical Publications, 2000.
Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory. 1898. http://www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/kings/main.html. Accessed: August 19, 2006.
Hoffman D. Medical Herbalism. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 2003.
Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield, England: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1988.
Williamson EM, ed. Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2002
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