Used internally and topically as a vulnerary to heal affections of the skin and mucous membranes.
Dermatologic (topical application)
• soft tissue injury
- decubitus ulcers
- diabetic ulcers
- pressure ulcers
• diaper rash
• varicose veins
• anal fisures
• apthous ulcers
• gastric ulcers
• menstrual complaints
• otitis (ear oil)
• Tincture (1:5 in 90% EtOH): 0.3-1.2 ml tid
• Liquid extract (1:1 in 45% EtOH): 1-4 ml tid
• Infusion: (dried herb): 1-4 tsp tid-qid
• Cream (2.5%): as needed
Generally considered safe when used as indicated.
Pregnancy: Use with caution; emmenogogue effects.
Barnes J, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines, 3rd ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2007.
Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
Bone K. A Clinical Guide to Blending Liquid Herbs: Herbal Formulations for the Individual Patient. St Louis, MO: Churchill Livingstone, 2003.
Brinker F. The Toxicology of Botanical Medicines, 3rd ed. Sandy, Oregon: Eclectic Medical Publications, 2000.
Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory. 1898. http://www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/kings/main.html. Accessed: August 19, 2006.
Hoffman D. Medical Herbalism. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 2003.
Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield, England: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1988.
Williamson EM, ed. Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2002
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