products aor hydroxy-b12

Hydroxy B12

By : AOR - Advanced Orthomolecular Research

Indications

• Pernicious anemia
• Superior B12 supplement
• Cyanide toxicity

Ingredients

Supplement FactsServing Size:1 Lozenge

Amount PerServing
Hydroxycobalamin …..… 1000 mcg

Non-medicinal ingredients: silicon dioxide, sorbitol, magnesium stearate.

AOR Guarantees: that no ingredients not listed on the label have been added to the product. Contains no wheat, gluten, nuts, dairy, soy, eggs, fish, shellfish, or animal byproducts.

Source: Biological fermentation

Description

Actions:
• Helps rid the body of cyanide
• Supports the brain and nervous system
• Required for methylation cycles
• Readily converted into the coenzyme form
Hydroxycobalamin is a unique form of vitamin B12, which is more readily converted into the coenzyme forms than conventional cyanocobalamin. Hydroxycobalamin also readily binds body stores of cyanide, unlike conventional cyanocobalamin, which already includes this ion in its structure.

Background Information
Hydroxycobalamin is a unique form of vitamin B12 that is especially effective for thoseconcerned with chronic low-level cyanide toxicity.Hydroxycobalamin is more readily converted into the coenzyme forms than conventional cyanocobalamin. A coenzyme is a factor needed for the effective functioning of one of the body's vital enzymes. Many vitamins, including B12, are not biologically active in the form in which they are normally found in food, but are instead used by the body as part of a coenzyme. In other words, in these cases, the body has to convert a vitamin into its coenzyme form in order for the vitamin to exert its biological function.
Or, in the case of vitamin B12: not function, but functions…

The Various Co-Enzyme Forms of Vitamin B12 The body uses vitamin B12 in the form of two different coenzymes, each of which plays a different role in the body. Adenosylcobalamin [also known as cobamamide or dibencozide], was discovered earlier, and is the better-known of these coenzymes. Methylcobalamin is the other coenzyme form of B12. Methylcobalamin prevents the creeping numbness, dementia, and spongy degeneration of the nerve cells (neurons) seen in B12 deficiency. Adenosylcobalamin helps the body to process some amino acids, and to form substances used in the body's energy cycle. One coenzyme can't substitute for the other, any more than you can use your house keys to start your car.
You might think that this is the kind of obscure little factoid that gets put into biology textbooks or turns up on Final Jeopardy, but which has no real-world importance. My diet and supplement program includes plenty of B12,
you might think, so my body will make all the B12 coenzymes I could ever want or need.
Like the old song says, It ain't necessarily so.
Are You Making Enough B12? While a good diet and supplement program usually guarantees the body a generous supply of adenosylcobalamin (unless you have a deadly genetic defect), the same cannot be said of Methylcobalamin. While adenosylcobalamin is readily stored up in the liver (and, to a lesser extent, the kidneys and other tissues), methylcobalamin's job requires that it be free to circulate in body fluids like cytosol (the liquid medium of the cell), plasma, and the fluid that bathes the brain and spinal cord (cerebrospinal fluid). Because of this, Methylcobalamin doesn't hang around in the body for very long.
Thus, while a person getting enough of the basic vitamin (cobalamin) will always have plenty of adenosylcobalamin, the nervous system has no special store of protective Methylcobalamin on which to rely. In fact, the body's Methylcobalamin fuel tanks
can easily be brought below optimal levels, and the supply is quickly depleted if it is not constantly replenished.
Skin A Step When you take a regular B12 (cyanocobalamin) supplement, the body must first convert its B12 into Hydroxycobalamin order to form the B12 coenzymes. This involves the removal and detoxification of the cyanide molecule, followed by biochemical reduction to a less oxidized (+1 valence) state, and then the enzymatic conversion of the reduced cobalamin into one of two metabolically active coenzyme forms. By taking a preformed Hydroxycobalamin supplement, you can skip over this first biochemical stumbling block, allowing for unhampered formation of adenosylcobalamin and Methylcobalamin.
Methylcobalamin or Hydroxycobalamin? Because the body can interconvert the two B12 coenzymes, and because the body stores adenosylcobalamin but not Methylcobalamin, an adequate supply of Methylcobalamin usually ensures that you'll have plenty of adenosylcobalamin, too – but not vice-versa. Because of this fact, and because of the powerful neuroprotective effects of Methylcobalamin, a fully-formed Methylcobalamin supplement is the best choice for most people.
Cyanide Toxicity One key exception is persons with known or suspected cyanide toxicity, where Hydroxycobalamin has an unique role to play. Hydroxycobalamin helps the body to rid itself of cyanide, both by reacting with the toxin to form cyanocobalamin (which can then be excreted) and by enhancing the detoxification of cyanide through its conversion into the less toxic thiocyanate. In isolated human cells, Hydroxycobalamin penetrates cyanide-laden cells and detoxifies the toxin directly. Hydroxycobalamin has a long history of intravenous use for acute, life-threatening cyanide toxicity (such as during industrial disasters) and is approved for this use in many European countries. At lower doses, oral Hydroxycobalamin increases the urinary excretion of thiocyanate in laboratory animals fed cyanide-containing diets. Sublingual Hydroxycobalamin is an ideal choice for a B12 supplement in persons concerned with chronic, low-level cyanide toxicity.

Research
Homocysteine Reduction for Cognitive Function In a single-blind, placebo controlled study, it investigated the effects of a treatment of hydroxycobalamin on 16 healthy elderly subjects with low plasma Cbl concentration, but who were without cerebral and cognitive abnormalities. After one month of treatment with a placebo and then five months of treatment with intramuscular injections of hydroxycobalamin, it was determined that after supplementation with the cobalamin, plasma Cbl concentrations increased, and plasma MMA and tHcy concentrations decreased. Before and after the measurements were taken for levels of plasma cobalamin, total homocysteine (tHcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA), quantitative electroencephalograph (qEEG), and psychometric tests were taken. Improvements were observed on Verbal Word Learning Test and Verbal Fluency; electrographic signs also indicated improved cerebral function and improved cognitive function. These improvements were related to a reduction of plasma tHcy concentration.

Cyanide Exposure Another study investigated the effects of administering hydroxycobalamin to firefighters who have suffered from hydrogen cyanide smoke inhalation, in order to determine if an early intervention with the administration of vitamin b12 coenzyme could have a positive effect. 161 firefighters who were suspected or confirmed to have hydrogen cyanide poisoning were studied in a mulicenter retrospective case review from the Emergency Medical Assistance Unit (Service d'Aide MÉdical d'Urgence) in France. All patients were given an initial dose of 5 g of hydroxocobalamin. Non-responders received a second dose of 5 g of hydroxocobalamin. Of the patients that were initially in cardiac arrest, 30 died at the scene, 24 died in hospital, and 5 survived without cardiovascular sequelae. An improvement in cardiac disorders was noted with increasing doses of hydroxocobalamin. With higher dose administrations of the antidote, a superior outcome in patients with an initial cardiac arrest was observed.

Market Trends
More and more evidence continues to emerge regarding the function and importance of vitamin B12 intake. This vitamin is essential as it cannot be manufactured in the body and must be obtained through the diet. In addition, many vitamins, including B12, are not biologically active in the form in which they are normally found in food.
Methylcobalamin is the most preferable source of vitamin B12 because of its excellent bioavailability and its benefits for nerve function. Hydroxycobalamin is a lesser known coenzyme form of B12 which originates after the conversion of Methylcobalamin by the body in order for it to be biologically active.

AOR Advantage
Hydroxycobalamin is a unique form of vitamin B12, which is more readily converted into the active coenzyme form than conventional cyanocobalamin. AOR's Hydroxycobalamin delivers the essential functions of standard vitamin B12 while at the same time ridding the body of cyanide, all in a convenient and reliable lozenge.

Dose

Take 1 lozenge under the tongue daily with food, or as directed by a qualified health care practitioner.

Potential side effects/Safety

Cautions: None known

Pregnancy/Nursing: Safe

References

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Ellis FR, Nasser S. A pilot study of vitamin B12 in the treatment of tiredness. Br J Nutr. 1973 Sep; 30(2): 277-83.

Forsyth JC, Mueller PD, Becker CE, Osterloh J, Benowitz NL, Rumack BH, Hall AH. Hydroxocobalamin as a cyanide antidote: safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics in heavily smoking normal volunteers. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1993; 31(2): 277-94.

Fortin JL, Desmettre T, Manzon C, Judic-Peureux V, Peugeot-Mortier C, Giocanti JP, Hachelaf M, Grangeon M, Hostalek U, Crouzet J, Capellier G.

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