conditions leukoplakia



Other:Leukoplasia, leukokeratosis, idiopathic keratosis
ICD-10 Codes:K13.2, N48.0, N88.0, N89.4, N90.4

Naturopathic Treatments

• avoid or discontinue alcohol or tobacco use

• increase fruits and vegetables

vitamin A
• beta-carotene
• fiber

• photodynamic therapy

Conventional Treatments

• surgical excision
• cryotherapy ablation
• carbon dioxide laser ablation
• discontinue alcohol and tobacco use

Signs & Symptoms

• white, gray, fuzzy patches on tongue, mouth or inside of cheeks
• cannot be scraped off or wiped away
• thickened in areas
• irregular in shape
• may also have reddish, red precancerous lesions


• oral candidiasis
• oral hairy leukoplakia
• geographic tongue (benign migratory glossitis)
• hairy tongue (hyperplastic papillae)
• lichen planus
• squamous cell carcinoma


• idiopathic etiology
• risk factors
- alcohol consumption
- tobacco use
- betel nut chewing
- irritation (rough teeth, dentures and crowns)
- vitamin deficiency
- candidiasis
- Epstein-Barr virus infection
- HIV infection


• biopsy


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